Starch hydrogels are highly available, biocompatible and biodegradable materials that have promising applications in medical and pharmaceutical industries. However, their applications are very limited due to their poor mechanical properties and fragility. Here, we investigated, for the first time, conventional corn and waxy corn starch-based hydrogels for loading patchouli essential oil. The essential oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide with a yield reached 8.37 ± 1.2 wt.% (wet sample) at 80 °C temperature and 10 MPa pressure. Patchouli essential oil exhibited a 23 to 28 mm zone of inhibition against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Waxy starch hydrogels had better properties in term of viscosity, water evaporation stability and the delivery of essential oil than conventional starch hydrogels. The viscosity and spreadability of a 6% waxy starch sample were 15,016 ± 59 cP and 4.02 ± 0.34 g·cm/s, respectively, compared with those of conventional starch hydrogel (13,008 ± 29 cP and 4.59 ± 0.88 g·cm/s). Waxy starch-based hydrogels also provided slower in vitro biodegradation behavior and sustained release of essential oil compared with conventional starch hydrogels. All the samples were biocompatible and non-cytotoxic to fibroblast cells; the addition of patchouli essential oil enhances the proliferation of the cells. The enhanced viscosity, good antibacterial and improved biocompatibility results of prepared hydrogels confirm their suitability for wound healing applications.