The global demand for clean water has become increasingly important in the past decade as a result of the growing world population, civilization, and the increase in sources of contaminations. Aerogels are an exceptional form of porous materials with extraordinary unique properties. The aerogel has been fabricated from different inorganic and organic materials and incorporated with a variety of novel compounds for specific applications and to enhance its performance in the desired application. Activated carbon is well known for its water-pollutant adsorption, it has been prepared from several organic materials including agricultural wastes and used to treat water from organic dyes, heavy metals, oils, and toxic chemicals. However, as a powder form, activated carbon must be incorporated either into a filter or undergo a post-treatment step to remove the adsorbent from treated water. This review highlighted the development of agricultural waste-based carbon and activated carbon loaded nano-structured aerogels. A review of the types of aerogels and the properties based on the precursor materials was conducted to extensively discuss the potential use of agricultural waste-based carbon and activated carbon loaded nano-structured aerogels in wastewater treatment applications. We also discussed the challenges and future prospects of carbon and activated carbon nano-structured aerogels for wastewater treatment applications.